1.  Title:  The Movement of Shadows

2.  Instructor/grade level:  Jennifer Cwynar/for a second grade classroom.

3.  Description of the topic:  In the morning, we will go outside and measure the length of the shadow cast by a student (weather permitting).  Students will work in groups to make predictions about the length of the shadow in the afternoon.  We will repeat this procedure before lunch.  The instructor will read What Makes a Shadow by Clyde Robert Bulla.  We will discuss the book and complete the “L” section of the K-W-L chart.  Students will return to their seats and write what they learned in their science journal. 

4.  Rationale:  This topic meets New Jersey Core Curriculum Standards for listening, speaking and writing in Language Arts Literacy.  Additionally, it meets the Astronomy and Space Science standard for this grade level.  It also provides children the opportunity to work cooperatively in groups which meets that standard for Consumer, Family and Life Skills. 

5.  Prior knowledge:  Students worked in groups to complete measurement activities during math lessons.  The topic of shadows was discussed briefly on Groundhog Day.  They participated in read-aloud where they learned about the sun, completed a bulletin board and wrote in their science journal.

6.  NJ Core Curriculum Standards

Language Arts Literacy: 

Science: 

Career Education and Consumer, Family and Life Skills

7. Objectives

Content:

Objective:  The students will be able to observe the movements of shadows on the Earth during the course of a day.   

Assessment:  The instructor will monitor their performance during the experiments, assess their responses in group discussion and collect their journals and worksheets to assess their understanding. 

Motor, Thinking, and Study Skills: 

Objective:  The students will be able to complete a worksheet where they make predictions, provide rationales, make observations, log results and draw conclusions. 

Assessment:  The instructor will collect the worksheets at the end of the activities.   

Objective:  During discussion, the students will be able to elaborate on the ideas, offer their personal opinions and stay focused on the topic. 

Assessment:  The instructor will assess their performance in group discussion.

Objective:  The students will be able to write what they learned in their science journal. 

Assessment:  The instructor will collect journals at the end of the day to assess their understanding.

 

Attitudes: 

Objective:  The students will be able to work cooperatively with others to accomplish a task.

Assessment:  The instructor will monitor their performance during group work and score a rubric for the assignment. 

8.  The hook: 

9.  Activities:

After the morning meeting, the instructor will pass out materials to each group which includes tape measures, chalk, role sheets, rubrics, clip boards and worksheets.  Students will be assigned to work in small groups of four to five people to complete the activity.  Each child will be assigned a specific role for group work.  The roles will be predetermined by the instructor.  The roles are recorder, data collector, shadow maker and place marker.  The shadow maker will stand in one sunny spot to cast the shadow for measurements.  The data collector will measure the shadow’s length with a tape measure.  The place marker will use chalk to draw an outline around the student’s feet (to ensure that they stand in the same spot in the afternoon).  The recorder will record the shadow’s length on the worksheet.  If there are five members in a group, then two people will take the measurements to ensure accuracy.  The instructor will describe the roles and rubric.

Time allotted for this activity:  5-10 minutes

 

Students will follow the instructor outside to a safe and sunny spot where they will collect their first measurement.  They will return to their seats and complete the first side of their worksheet as a group (see attached sheet).  

Time allotted for this activity:  15 minutes (This activity is contingent upon the weather conditions)

 

Before lunch, the students will accompany the teacher outside to collect their afternoon shadow measurements.  Each student will maintain their unique role in the group.  They will return to their seats in the classroom and record their observations. 

Time allotted for this activity:  15 minutes (This activity is contingent upon the weather conditions)

 

The students will meet on the mat during the read aloud time.  We will discuss each group’s predictions, rationales, observations and conclusions.  The instructor will log their data on a class chart.    

Time allotted for this activity:  10 minutes (This activity is contingent upon the completion of the outdoor activities)

 

The instructor will ask the students to listen for different examples of shadows.  The students will listen while the instructor reads, What Makes a Shadow by Clyde Robert Bulla.  

Time allotted for this activity:  10 minutes

 

 

10.  Questions:

I.  Before reading the book: 

II. Closure:

 

11.  Closure:  The students will answer questions and share their ideas after the book is read.  The instructor will fill in the “L” section of the K-W-L chart and the students will return to their seats to write in their science journal.   

Time allotted for this activity:  10 minutes

 

12.  Individualization:  The instructor will pair a student that is an English Language Learner with a peer for the experiments.  The instructor will preview the book with this student before the lesson.  She will ask the student what she notices as she looks at the picture and previews the book.  During the lesson, the instructor will use graphic organizers as a scaffold.  Certain students will be seated in closer proximity to the instructor during the read aloud.  A variety of questions will be posed for discussion to maximize participation.  The instructor will rotate around the room and provide guidance for children that are struggling with their seat work.  Some students may be paired together to complete the journal writing activity.  Students that finish early may explore the Starchild website or browse the space bin for extra resources on the topic. 

 

13.  Materials:

 

14. Follow-up Activities:  Students will learn about the earth’s daily rotation cycle by observing a demonstration with globes and flashlights.  The instructor will read What Makes Day and Night by Franklin Branley.  Students will respond to the text and write in their science journals. 

 

 

Name:  ________________

 

Role sheets and Rubric

Circle your role in the group

Shadow maker:  Stand in one spot.  Let a friend measure your shadow.

 

Data collector:  Measure the shadow in inches.  Tell the recorder.

 

Recorder:  Write down the measurement on the worksheet.

 

Place marker:  Draw a chalk outline around the shadow maker’s feet.

 

Rubric

Use this rubric to help you understand your job in group work.  Score your results.

1 Point

2 Points

3 Points

I needed more than 1 reminder.

I needed one reminder.

I had great self control.

I did not share my ideas or listen to my friends.

I shared my ideas and listened to my friends sometimes.

I shared my ideas and listened to my friends.

I did not stay in my role.

I needed one reminder to work in my role.

I worked in my role without reminders.

 

Points earned:   _______________

 

Do shadows change during the day?

 

 

 

 

1.  In the morning, the shadow was

     _________ inches long.

 

 

4.    When we measure the shadow in the afternoon, will the length change?

 

 

Yes

 

 

No

 

 

 

5. Why?  ______________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

 

 

6.  In the afternoon, the shadow was ____________ inches long.

 

7.    Did the length of the shadow change?

 

 

Yes

 

 

No

 

 

 

8. How did it change?

_______________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________